There is much international debate over the question as to what extent organisms produced through the use of so called New Breeding Techniques (NBTs) fall under the scope of existing biosafety regulations, e.g. whether they fall under the definition of GEO (USDA), GMO (EU), ONT (Canada), LMO (CPB), et cetera. These questions will be addressed at a later stage on the pages under “Regulation”.
The links to the techniques listed below provide summaries of the technical background of several techniques together with links to further information.
- Genome editing (the precise targeted modification of the genome)
- RNA-Directed DNA Methylation (RdDM)
- Grafting on GM rootstock
- Reverse breeding
NB: it should be noted that the term New Breeding Techniques covers a wide range of very different techniques and that not all those techniques are necessarily ‘new’, and not all those techniques are ‘breeding’ in a strict sense. In addition, the terms cisgenesis and intragenesis refer to an endresult rather than to a technique.
Links and publications:
- Swiss Academies fact sheet on NPBTs, 2016
- EPSO Fact Sheets on New Breeding Technologies, 2016
- VIB Factsheet: “From plant to crop: The past, present and future of plant breeding” (See Chapter 3, VIB, Belgium, 2016)
- JRC report: New plant breeding techniques. State-of-the-art and prospects for commercial development. 2011